Dooley's - Flight Simulation 

by Peter and David Dooley    

Flight Manual

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Mirage F1 Flight Manual and Checklist

The following flight manual and checklist is being used on our Mirage F1-CZ simulator. 

 

Contents

Aircraft Operation Limitations

Normal Flight Procedure

Flight Checklist

Aircraft Performance Check

 

 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION LIMITATIONS

 

TAKEOFF/LANDING  (HIGH LIFT DEVICES)

1/2 FLAPS   - IAS < 300 kt

Full FLAPS  - IAS < 225 kt

Load factor (full flaps) - 2,5 g The flaps have an automatic pressure release system that

automatically retracts the flaps should they be extended during excessive speed or load.

 

JPT  (Jet Pipe Temperature)

 

The JPT is controlled by the JPT regulator which opens and closes the nozzle on the end of the jet pipe, thereby regulating the flow of gas and consequently the temperature. It stands to reason that more this is restricted, the more thrust will be generated but also the higher the temperature will be. Except for the effects of increased thrust, the AB does not affect the JPT reading (probe in front of AB)

JPT must not reach 900 degrees C during starting. 850 deg C is permissible for a period of less than 3 seconds

At full power with stabilized RPM, with or without AB, the temperature reading on the JPT indicator must remain within the following limits:

On the ground : RPM - 8,400  JPT < 755 deg C

In Flight:          RPM = 8,400 JPT < 700 deg C

                       RPM - 8,900 JPT < 735 deg C

Peak JPT permissible on throttle movements is 780 deg C for a period of 30 seconds maximum and 840 deg C peak

In flight, JPT generally exceeds 740 deg C at 8,400 RPM and 710 deg C at 8,900 RPM.

High speed with AB or low speed at high altitude the JPT reading at maximum engine RPM could fall and must not go below 550 deg C

 

GEAR

Maximum takeoff weight - 15,200 Kg

Normal landing weight - 9,000 Kg 

Exceptional landing weight - 11,000 Kg 

Maximum rate of decent at touchdown:

9,000 Kg - 450 ft/min

11,000 Kg - 350 ft/min

 

The <LIM> light illuminates at acceleration direction IAS >240 kt when the nose wheel is not locked up

If the landing gear is not down and locked, the <U/C> warning light illuminates when the IAS < 215 kt and the throttle lever is set to less than 8,100 RPM

U/C indicator

 

FLIGHT ENVELOPE WITH AUTOPILOT

 

Gear and Flaps up

500     - 1000 ft     IAS < 450 kt

1000   - 20,000 ft   IAS < 650 kt

20,000 - 36-000 ft  IAS < 700 kt

36,000 - 50,000 ft  MACH < 2.0

 

COMPRESSOR CREEP

Total temperature may not exceed 135 deg C (illumination of <LIM> warning light)

 

INVERTED FLIGHT

Maximum of 15 seconds

 

SUPERSONIC CONDITIONS

Half rolls only allowed up to:

M - 1.5

TAT - 135 deg C

Crosswind - 25 kt

 

Maximum dive allowed may not exceed -30 deg pitch

 

CAUTION 1

LIM indicator

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES MAY THE ENGINE EXCEED 9,250 RPM

<LIM> warning light illumination at 9,200 RPM

CAUTION 2

IN ALL OTHER CASES OF ILLUMINATION OF THE <LIM> WARNING LIGHT, REDUCE SPEED

 

ENGINE RPM

Maximum continuous operation - 9,000 RPM 

Instantaneous peak limit - 9,250 RPM

Note: At 8,900 RPM, the engine over speed controller is activated.

At 9,250 RPM, the fuel flow is automatically reduced in small increments by a

chopper solenoid to prevent over-speed of the engine and a possible "flame-out"

situation at high speed.

In an over-speed situation, reduce throttle in small increments in order to bring

the speed under control.

Actual F1-CZ gauges

 

 

 

 

 

 

NORMAL FLIGHT PROCEDURES

 

START:-

Fuel pumps ON

Press START button

Between 300 - 600 RPM - THROTTLE TO IDLE

The <OIL> light should remain on when RPM <2000 otherwise shut down starter

During normal engine start, the engine should accelerate to a speed of >2000 RPM after approximately 15 seconds and JPT increases rapidly through 700 degrees C - CLOSE THROTTLE

JPT may reach 850 degrees C for a period not exceeding 3 seconds

<HYD> and <OIL> lights go out.

<ALT> light goes out between 2600 and 2800 RPM

CHECK RPM -  engine idle stabilizes at around 2900 RPM (If the engine is cold, the speed will vary between 2600 and 3200 RPM)

 

STARTING AIRCRAFT ROLLING

<PARKING BRAKE> - Release and <BRAKES> light should go out

<THROTTLE> - Advance to 6000 RPM

<BRAKES> - Apply once rolling

The aircraft is steered with the pedals ONLY - WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF THE DIFFERENTIAL BRAKES

Do not exceed a speed of 20 kt during taxiing

Recommended power setting - between 5500 and 6000 RPM

 

 

USE OF AFTERBURNER

 

WITH SRL (Slam Re-Light) SYSTEM

Open throttle to establish 8,100 RPM.

At 8,100 RPM, the SRL system ignites AB and three seconds thereafter, the <INJ> light

 illuminates followed by the green <ON>

Engine parameters stabilize

WITHOUT SRL SYSTEM

To ignite AB, check that JPT > 600 deg C

Ignite AB and <INJ> light will illuminate and green <ON> light then comes on.

 

The <AB> light illuminates once the ionization probe situated in the exhaust chamber detects

that the AB has been ignited

 

CAUTION If <INJ> light fails to go out after 10 seconds, shut off the AB

 

TAKEOFF

When AB is ignited, check engine RPM and JPT

Release brakes and hold aircraft on centerline without using excessive action on the rudder

Leave pitch control in neutral position

Time check at 100 kt (1 second elapsed per ton aircraft weight)

At 120 kt (Rotation speed) establish takeoff attitude of approximately 12 degrees

Aircraft should become air bourn at around 150 kt

Retract U/C after positive climb is established

Retract flaps at 200 kt while climbing

AB off at 300 kt

 

MAXIMUM SPEED

 

IAS 700 kt between 0 and 20,000 ft

IAS 750 kt above 20,000 ft

MACH limit = 2.10

 

 

CONSTANT IAS CLIMB AND MACH NUMBER CLIMB

 

SUBSONIC THRUST

 Normal thrust   IAS = 470 kt and M = 0.92

Maximum thrust IAS = 500 kt and M = 0.95

SUPERSONIC CLIMB SCHEDULE

Climb according to thrust schedule up to 30,000 ft

Thereafter, accelerate up to 610 kt in level flight

Climb at constant IAS of 610 kt up to 36,000 ft

Accelerate up to M = 1.8 in level flight

Maintain M = 1.8 up to desired altitude

Note: When passing through M 1.0 static port may be temporarily blocked

 

SUPERSONIC ACCELERATION

AB operation above 27,000 ft

Accelerate at 30,000 ft up to IAS 610 kt  M = 1.5

Climb at constant IAS of 610 kt up to 36,000 ft and continue acceleration in level flight.

At MACH 1.4 check that engine over speed system has been activated RPM 8,900

SUPERSONIC DECELERATION

Afterburner off

Engine RPM may only be reduced at M < 1.4

 

USE OF AUTOPILOT

CLIMB

After establishing climb attitude, engage the autopilot and correct the attitude by means of the pitch control

It is preferable to make large corrections with the autopilot disengaged

CRUISE

Altitude Hold - With autopilot already operational, bring the nose of the aircraft onto the horizon and engage the <ALT> pushbutton which will illuminate.

The altitude is stabilized after a delay of approximately 2 minutes

CAUTION - Operation of ALT HOLD at low speed with insufficient engine power may rapidly lead to high angles of attack.

Heading Hold - Engage only where bank angle is less than 10 degrees. In this function the autopilot intercepts and then holds the heading and the function may remain connected during climbs and descents. Avoid high intercept angles.

Turns - Between 60 - 65 degrees, the autopilot brings the aircraft to a bank angle of 60 degrees. Above 65 degrees, engaging of the  control is no longer possible. At lower speeds, the maximum bank angle is reduced. The speed schedule is as follows:

Normal flight without pylon tanks or with pylon tanks below 28,000 ft

MACH 0.53   Bank angle limitation = 30 degrees

MACH 1.1 or higher                      = 50 degrees

 

With pylon tanks above 28,000 ft

MACH 0.3   Bank angle limitation   = 22 degrees

MACH 0.53 or higher                     = 30 degrees

 

FUEL FLOW

At cruise altitude (30,000 ft) with a speed of IAS 480kts the fuel flow should be between

33 - 35 liters per minute.

(Higher supersonic speeds will greatly increase the drag factor on the aircraft and will result in a decline of fuel efficiency.)

Fuel consumption for a normal long distance flight (including, taxi, take-off and landing) can be estimated at 7.238 liters X distance (nautical miles)

 

DESCENT

The autopilot is used as described above. When leveling off and particularly for ILS approaches, it is preferable to disconnect the AP and first adjust the nose attitude then re-engage. Vertical speeds in excess of 5000 ft/min should be avoided.

Engine RPM 6,500 minimum below 10000 ft

Note:

The rate of descent is calculated by using the approximation Mach1.0 = 10nm per minute ground speed.

 

The following example is given:

Distance to descent destination = 70nm

Average descent speed = Mach 0.7 (equivalent to an approximate ground speed of 7 nautical miles per minute)

Current altitude = 30,000 ft

Target altitude = 5,000 ft

Current altitude less target altitude = 25,000 ft

At the average descent speed (Mach 0.7), 70nm will be covered in 10 minutes, therefore the rate of descent (vertical speed) required is 25,000 ft divided by 10 minutes = 2,500 ft/min

 

ILS APPROACH

To perform an ILS approach, fly the aircraft to the localizer interception point at an angle less than 45 degrees by selecting the functions necessary on the AP. <ALT> and applicable heading selector.

When approaching the beacon, the localizer beam is then captured and used to line the aircraft with the runway and the approach mode is activated. When the glide-slope beam is captured the aircraft will descend automatically. Reduce the engine RPM by 100. 

During localizer beam capture, the maximum commanded bank angle is 30 degrees. <ALT> mode may be used if preferred and the radio altimeter should be turned on before the glide-slope beam is captured

The autopilot is disengaged at 200 ft AGL by pressing the AP disconnect trigger on the control stick grip in order to perform the landing.

(Note: Observe correct RPM settings, angle of attack, aircraft configuration and indicated airspeed for the approach)

 

CEILING

55,000 ft

 

ACROBATICS

Minimum start altitude = 5,000 ft

Loop without AB

 - entry IAS 450 kt, Accelerate to 4 g's and pitch up. At about 10,000 ft inverted IAS approximately 200 kt

Loop with AB

- entry IAS 360 kt. Pitch up and at 7,000 ft inverted IAS approximately 200 kt

Slow roll

- IAS = 400 kt

Fast roll

- two successive rolls maximum. Accelerate to between 450 kt and 550 kt (M = 0.9)

Minimum time turn

- IAS = 300 kt

 

STABILIZED INVERTED FLIGHT

 

Limited to 15 seconds only

AB ignition OFF

Note: The fuel tanks have an "inverted" compartment that hold a small amount of fuel which is enough to last for 15 seconds only in normal engine operation

 

USE OF THE INCIDENCE INDICATOR

In straight flight, the aircraft always stalls at the same incidence, regardless of the weight. (Speeds vary according to the weight)

On the downwind leg, keep engine RPM low in order to reduce airspeed. Place the aircraft

into a landing configuration and allow the incidence to increase up to 10 degrees and note

 the corresponding airspeed. This is the airspeed required for the the final turn and it is

 maintained by increasing the engine RPM. The incidence meter serves as a monitor and

 will average 12 - 13 degrees due to lift variance in the turn.

Check the approach incidence again on final.

 

 

Relationship between incidence and IAS for a given weight

 

  Incidence

reading

IAS versus weight

8,700 Kg

 

11,000 Kg

Maximum L/D ratio - all down   8    
Optimum ratio - all down   9 156 177
    9.5    
    10 151 172
Watch engine RPM   11 146 167
    12 141 162
Touchdown   12.5    
    13 136 157
    14    
    15    
    15.5    
Keel limits   16    
Limit   17 117 138
    22    

 

NORMAL DESCENTS

RPM approximately 6,500

Establish -10 deg flight path slope

Maintain M = 0.92 and final IAS of 450 kt

FAST DESCENTS

RPM = 6,500

Airbrakes extended

Maintain IAS 300 kt

If rate of descent is to be reduced, retract airbrakes, maintain 300 kt, 6,500 RPM and a flight path of -5 degrees

 

PATTERN

Break IAS 350 kt and apply airbrakes as required to establish pattern speed restrictions if

 applicable

 

 

CAUTION - On short final, do not reduce engine RPM below 7,000 to maintain good engine response

 

APPROACH SPEED SCHEDULE (at a weight of 8,700 Kg)

Pattern - Break IAS 350 kt  RPM = 6,500 Bank 60 degrees onto downwind leg

Abeam runway 45 degrees - IAS 215 kt

Down-wind leg - Stabilize speed IAS 180 kt  RPM = 7,300

Runway threshold - 45 degrees - IAS 150 kt (key point for final turn)

Final turn - IAS 150 kt   RPM = 7,300

Glide slope 2.5 degrees - IAS 150 kt  RPM = 7,300

Straight line final approach and flare- RPM = 7,000 IAS 135 kt on touchdown

 

 

LANDING

Maintain velocity vector on runway by compromising angle of attack, glide slope and engine

 RPM

AOA should be between 9 and 11 degrees

Engine RPM between 7,000 and 7,600

When reaching overrun, pull out of glide slope by increasing AOA to about 13 degrees and

 reduce engine RPM to 7,000 when touchdown barrier is assured

Touchdown is IAS 135 kt at a weight of 8,700 Kg on final (1000 liters of fuel remaining)

(Sink rate according to landing gear schedule)

After touchdown, move throttle to idle.

Do not extend airbrakes during flare-out

 

AERODYNAMIC BRAKING

Hold nose high down to 120 kt. Aerodynamic braking become negligible below 100 kt and nose-wheel will touch down before 90 kt

 

 

 

FLIGHT CHECKLIST

The following checks are used on our F1-CZ simulator

 

PRE-START CABIN CHECK

Clock                                                                         SET

Mach/Airspeed indicator                                     ZERO

RPM indicator                                                         ZERO

A/B lights                                                                TESTED

Slaved Altimeter                                                    FLAG VISIBLE

Vertical speed indicator                                        ZERO

Landing light switch                                               OFF

Landing gear handle                                              DOWN

Radio                                                                         SET

Flap lever                                                                 FULL FORWARD

Throttle lever                                                           CLOSED

Cockpit lights                                                           OPERATIONAL

Fuel gauge                                                                CHECKED

Cross-feed switch                                                   OFF

Radio Altimeter                                                       OFF

Alternator switch                                                    ON

Failure warning lights                                            TESTED

 

ENGINE START

Parking brake                                                         ON

Fuel valve                                                               ON

Thrust lever                                                            IDLE

Start power                                                            ON

Oil light                                                                    ON BELOW 2000 RPM

Engine                                                                     STABLE AT 2900 RPM

JPT                                                                           NORMAL

Oil, Hyd and Alt lights                                          OFF

 

 

AFTER START CHECKS

Vertical reference                                              ON

Heading selector                                                NAV1 or HDG

VOR/ILS                                                               ON

Standby Horizon                                                 ON

Probe heat                                                           ON

Radio  frequencies                                             SET

 

PRE-TAXING CHECKS

Trims                                                                     SET

Airbrakes                                                              CHECKED

Flaps                                                                      CHECKED

Fuel cross-feed                                                    OFF

Fuel gauge quantities                                         CHECKED

Hydraulic pressure                                              NORMAL

V-Speeds                                                               COMPUTED

 

TAXING

Parking brake                                                        OFF

Wheel brakes                                                        CHECKED

Slaved altimeter                                                   SET

Standby horizon                                                   SET

 

 

 

LINEUP

Radio altimeter                                                     CHECKED / SET

Headings                                                               CHECKED

Flaps/Slats                                                            SET

Failure warning lights                                          OUT

Pitot heat                                                               ON

Flight controls                                                       FREE

Takeoff power      RPM                                          SET

 

TAKEOFF

Landing lights                                                     ON

100 kt time-check                                              CHECKED

AB                                                                          IGNITED

RPM and JPT                                                         CHECKED

 

CLIMB

Gear                                                                       UP / LOCKED

Flaps                                                                      UP

RPM                                                                        CHECKED

Landing lights                                                      OFF

 

DOWNWIND LEG CHECKS

Course / NAV                                                       SET

Hydraulic pressure                                              CHECKED

Airbrakes                                                               RETRACTED

Gear                                                                       DOWN / LOCKED

Flaps                                                                      FULL

Remaining Fuel                                                    CHECKED

Cross-Feed                                                           ON

Nose wheel steering                                           CHECKED

Brakes light                                                           OFF

Landing lights                                                       ON

RPM                                                                         CHECKED

Incidence                                                               CHECKED

 

AFTER CLEARING RUNWAY

Avionics                                                                OFF

Probe Heat                                                            OFF

Landing Light                                                        OFF

Flaps / Slats                                                          UP

Trims                                                                       NEUTRAL

 

ON PARKING AREA

RPM                                                                       STABILIZED

Radar                                                                     OFF

Avionics                                                                OFF

 

SHUTDOWN

Throttle                                                                 IDLE

Fuel valve                                                              OFF

Time                                                                       RECORD

BATTERY                                                                                       OFF       

 

 

 

AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE CHECK (CORNER SPEED)

 

In order to make sure that the aircraft is performing correctly, the following check should be

carried out:

At full power with afterburner on, bank the aircraft to the point where the the airspeed

 remains a constant 480 kts and the aircraft maintains level flight in the bank. If the aircraft

 performance is correct, then the rate of turn will be 10 degrees per second.

 

 

 

 

This page will be updated as and when we gather more information to allow for realistic

 operation of our simulator and we thank those who have in any way contributed to this page.

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Last modified: 08 January 2009